Transition from Smoldering to Flaming Fire in Short Cotton Samples with Asymmetrical Boundary Conditions

Report Date: December 2014

Why do smoldering fires sometimes remain smoldering and other times transition to flaming fires? This question and related hazard are applicable both to structural fires and wildfires. Earlier studies have found that two-thirds of smoldering fires from cigarettes on furniture and half of smoldering fires in leaves transitioned to flaming fires.This paper tires to quantify and explain this seemingly random phenomenon using a set of experiments with cotton batting and a hotplate as an ignition source. This information can be used to get a better understanding of fire growth.

Note: To view the entire article, subscription access through an organization or purchase is required.


There are no known applications at this time.

Do you know of an instance that this report was applied to?

Powered by ChronoForms -

  • Stord Haugesund University College

    Stord/Haugesund University College is a medium sized and modern state institution of higher education with approximately 3300 students and 300 employees. The institution was established August 1st, 1994 when four independent colleges in Stord and Haugesund merged.

  • University of Bergen

    The University of Bergen (UiB) is an internationally recognized research university. Academic diversity and high quality are fundamental for us. UiB is the most cited university in Norway.

    The Department of Physics and Technology’s 7 research groups and engineers are the foundation for a broad spectrum of research, education and innovation. The activity ranges from basic and cutting edge physics on the composition of the universe, to high technology in interdisciplinary areas like energy and petroleum, measurement science and technology, and medical physics and technology. Take a look at the IFT-matrix for an overview and more information on what we do, what we offer and who is engaged in what.

Hagen, Bjarne C., Vidar Frette, Gisle Kleppe, and Bjørn J. Arntzen. Transition from Smoldering to Flaming Fire in Short Cotton Samples with Asymmetrical Boundary Conditions. Fire Safety Journal, Volume 71, pp. 69-78. 2015. Accessed from

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Image Credit:
Rate this item
(0 votes)