Projects Tag: Backdraft

Typical modern structural fires encountered by firefighters are generally ventilation limited. As oxygen in the structure is depleted, the flames and temperatures decrease. After the initial drop in oxygen, oxygen levels begin to increase, but there is no corresponding increase…
Scandinavia has been a leader in using scientific research to better understand fire behavior, and more importantly, incorporating this understanding into training and tactics for firefighters. This paper summarizes much of the great Scandinavian research aimed at benefiting the fire…
While backdraft events continue to pose a serious danger to firefighters, the events are still poorly understood. During a backdraft, oxygen is introduced through a sudden opening in the compartment and the accumulated products of incomplete combustion ignite in a…
While backdrafts have been a known danger to firefighters for decades, there still is not a complete understanding of this fire phenomenon. For this project a reduced-scale compartment with eight selectable openings, six in the wall and two in the…
Rapid fire progression phenomena like backdrafts, flashovers, and flameovers continue to pose serious threats to firefighters. In order to perform fire operations effectively and safely, it is paramount that all firefighters both recognize and understand these phenomena. The purpose of…

Enclosure Fires

February 2001
The aim of Enclosure Fires is to provide a deeper understanding of how fire behaves during enclosure fires such as in houses or apartments. The book provides a basic knowledge of the factors controlling the fire behavior based on a…
This report analyses the scaling of enclosure fires, including internal wall temperatures and gas temperatures, velocities, and concentrations. Two series of room fires were tested in three different scales, full, medium, and small scale. From the testing, a method for…
On March 13, 2004, a fire officer and a firefighter lost their lives and 23 other firefighters and fire officers suffered injuries from a bell tower collapse during a church fire in Pennsylvania. Prior to the collapse, six other firefighters…
Ventilation encompasses the fire operations that release fire or hot gases to the open and affect the flow of gases in a structure. For ventilation operations to be most effective, the theories of ventilation must be understood. Fire Ventilation combines…
This NIST project from 1994 was undertaken to develop a fundamental physical understanding of backdraft phenomena. A backdraft is defined as a rapid deflagration following the introduction of oxygen into a compartment filled with unburned fuel, leading to terrible consequences…