Review of Three Dimensional Water Fog Techniques for Firefighting

Report Date: December 2002

3D Firefighting is an approach that accounts for the entire compartment environment while fighting a fire. In particular, 3D firefighting depends upon a knowledge and recognition of fire behavior and addresses the dangers present in the heated gases in a compartment. The three-dimensional water fog technique uses a fog nozzle to inject fine water droplets into the overhead gas layer in short bursts. The goal of the bursts is to cool the smoke layer to prevent ignition. The technique is not intended to to replace direct fire attack, but to complement direct fire attack as the conditions deem necessary. This report from the National Research Council Canada provides a review of research into the three dimensional water fog technique for firefighting.


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Liu, Z., A. Kashef, G. D. Lougheed, and N. Benichou. Review of Three Dimensional Water Fog Techniques for Firefighting. Research Report RR124, Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada, 2002.

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