CFD Modeling of Fire Development in Metro Carriages Under Different Ventilation Conditions

Report Date: November 2015

Full-scale, live-fire experiments provide excellent results, but they are very expensive and time consuming. This report from SP Fire Research in Sweden examines a method to model train carriage fires using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) computer simulations. An accurate simulation model would allow for less expensive and quicker tests, plus the ability to repeat the test with changes to the setup. The first part of the report compares the results with live-fire test results. The second part explores effects of ventilations in the train cars. While this testing is specific to trains, the information can be used to further understand all fires and fire development.


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  • SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden

    SP applies its internationally leading competence to the development and evaluation of technologies, material, products, and processes to meet its customers' needs and provide an effective link between research and commercialization.

    SP Fire Research is active in research, Fire Safety Engineering, support to national and international legislation, off-shore safety, risk analysis, testing, certification, inspection and so on. The group works globally.

    We investigate and test the behaviour of materials and products in fires. The results can be used for type approval and certification in Sweden and in other countries. We test extinguishants and fire-fighting equipment.

    We also perform theoretical analyses of the growth of fires and the spread of smoke, with calculations of temperatures in structures exposed to fire.

    We have an extensive network of contacts through such ways as active participation in international standardisation by CEN and ISO, as well as through the joint European fire testing laboratories organisation, EGOLF.

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Li, Ying Zhen. CFD Modeling of Fire Development in Metro Carriages Under Different Ventilation Conditions. SP Report 2015:86. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden. 2015.

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